Academic Operational Policies

Subject: Post-Secondary Admissions, Registration and Graduation Number:  AOP 225
Issued by: Vice-President Academic Date Issued:  March 2, 2016
Supersedes: ACAD 101, ACAD 102, ACAD 103, ACAD 104 Page:  1 of 13
Links:

Request for Withdrawal Form

Loyalist College Program Withdrawal Process

Academic Integrity – AOP 216

Academic Freedom – Statement

Academic Freedom – AOP 218

Evaluation of Student Performance – AOP 224

Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition – AOP 221

General Education – AOP 233

Student Involuntary Leave of Absence – AOP 234

Post-Graduate Studies Admissions Assessment Rubric

Revision
Date:
December 2016

Post-Secondary Admissions, Registration and Graduation

Scope

The Post-Secondary Admissions, Registration and Graduation Policy applies to all faculty, staff and all full-time and part-time (prospective, confirmed and registered) students of the College from the time of application to a course or program through to completion of the course or graduation from the program, where these activities or actions are a component of the relationship between the (prospective) student and the institution. Non-credit general interest courses with open admission are not covered under these regulations; those courses are covered in the specific course outline for each course.

The information contained within this document applies to all students registered in any Loyalist course or any program offered by the College, in any location or in any format. At times, the individual circumstances of a particular campus or a particular program may require a minor variation in procedure. These will be communicated to students at the commencement of the program or particular course. Students taking individual courses must meet admission requirements in order to be awarded the credential.

The Post-Secondary Admissions, Registration and Graduation Policy does not supersede or negate any rights or responsibilities provided by law, and does not seek to limit the rights or freedom of expression as provided by law; however, behaviour that interferes with Loyalist’s operations, a student’s ability to learn and successfully graduate, and/or the academic integrity of the institution, is unacceptable.

Disclaimer: The information contained within this document is current at the time of publication. Where changes occur, Loyalist will endeavour to communicate these changes immediately to students and provide them with as much advance notice as possible. Information on recent changes can be obtained from Enrolment Services.

Policy

The Loyalist Post-Secondary Admissions, Registration and Graduation Policy defines and provides a framework for procedures related to the admissions, registration, and graduation processes at Loyalist College of Applied Arts and Technology (hereafter referred to as “Loyalist” or “the College”). This policy applies to all applicants to Loyalist and all current students enrolled in any program or course offered by Loyalist College, in any location.

Procedure

1.0 POST-SECONDARY ADMISSION

1.1 Admission Process

In order to give College applicants the greatest opportunity for success, their eligibility for admission to a program will be assessed and considered based on a range of factors including their academic history and credentials. Each Loyalist program has academic, language and status requirements that applicants must satisfy in order to be admitted to that program. Specific admission requirements may vary from program to program. Details of the program-specific academic or other requirements (volunteer, work experience, etc.) are referenced on the College website.

Since applicants may be ranked based on a range of academic factors, meeting the minimum requirements for admission in any one year does not guarantee acceptance into a Loyalist program in a following year, as applicants are competing with others in the applicant pool for each admissions term. Admission is competitive and will be based on the applicant’s overall qualifications and the availability of space in the program and in accordance with Ministry of Training, Colleges and University policies.

1.1.1 Conditional Offers of Admission

In some cases, a student’s Offer Letter or Letter of Acceptance (LOA) will stipulate conditions that need to be satisfied in order to Loyalist to complete the offer of admission. Terms of the conditional offer of admission must be met prior to beginning studies at Loyalist. Failure to complete the conditional requirements will result in the offer being revoked by Enrolment Services.

1.1.2 Readmission to Program of Study

For information on interruption of studies and subsequent requests for readmission to programs, see Section 5.3 Readmission to Program of Study.

1.2 Domestic Applicants Admission Requirements

Any applicant/Student who attended secondary school in another province or country must provide documentation as proof of his/her credential’s academic equivalency to the Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD).

An individual requesting admission to a Loyalist program will fall into one of the following three (3) applicant categories: Secondary School Graduate, Mature Student, or Transfer Student. In addition, please refer to the detailed admission requirements for each program in the College Viewbook/College website to confirm program-specific academic and non-academic requirements.

Before applying as a Mature Student or Transfer Student, the applicant should contact Enrolment Services to discuss his/her specific requirements and the details of his/her application to confirm appropriate status.

 

Secondary School

Graduate

Applicant has successfully completed:

– an Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD) or equivalent

– has not previously attempted any postsecondary studies

– a homeschooling candidate will be required to provide documentation demonstrating completion of an Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD) and will need to demonstrate academic achievement and desired academic skills by way of an assessment administered by the College.

Mature Student

Applicant:

– is at least 19 years of age on the first day of classes

– has not graduated from secondary school with the required Grade 12 credits

Transfer Student

Applicant has previously attended a postsecondary institution. Applicants with previous education from private post-secondary institutions will be assessed on an individual basis.

 

Loyalist reserves the right to determine a minimum literacy and language proficiency level as a prerequisite to any post-secondary program or course. Students must have proficiency as verified by IELTS/TOEFL/PTE. Students who are unable to meet an acceptable level of applicable verbal and written skills will be denied entry into the course/program until the IELTS/TOEFL/PTE have been completed at an acceptable level.

 1.3 International Applicants Admission Requirements

Applicants applying from outside Canada or internationally educated applicants must review and adhere to admission requirements by country. The requirements and process can be found online.

International applicants must provide proof that they meet English language proficiency requirements. This can be demonstrated through various tests (i.e. TOEFL, IELTS, CAEL, MELAB). Transcripts, TOEFL, IELTS, CAEL and MELAB scores must be original or attested copies. Refer to the English language Proficiency Guidelines for more information and further acceptable tests and scores.

Additional program-specific requirements can be found in the program section of the Loyalist College website. Admission requirements are subject to change.

1.4 English Language Proficiency

Since most activities (lectures, seminars, laboratories, clinical and work placements) at Loyalist are conducted in English, it is essential that all students possess the writing, reading, listening, and speaking skills necessary to cope with the rigors of the academic curriculum and successfully complete the practical (clinical, field placement, and lab, etc.) components of their program. If a student’s first language is not English, or if a student’s previous education has not been conducted in English, the student will be required to demonstrate acceptable proficiency in English by undertaking and submitting the results of one of a range of English language proficiency tests.

2.0 RECOGNITION of PREVIOUS LEARNING and LIFE EXPERIENCE

Depending on the program to which the applicant has applied, once the applicant has been approved for admission, the applicant may apply to have Loyalist assess his/her previous post-secondary credentials and/or advanced standing in the program as detailed in AOP 224: Evaluation of Student Performance and AOP 221: Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition.

3.0 REGISTRATION

A degree, diploma, or certificate program of study prescribes the number and types of courses required to complete the specific credential. Upon payment of the prescribed tuition and non-tuition related fees, a duly registered student is entitled to receive instruction as to the maximum number of courses/credits as set out in the official program of study for each semester of the program. Additional tuition fees will be charged for each course beyond the established number of courses/credits for the prescribed semester should a student wish to:

a) take one or more additional courses;

b) repeat a course taken previously; or,

c) be required to take foundation-level courses;

Placement and practicum courses will be charged at 40%.

Note: When a student is over the course/credit limit for a semester, the student will be required to pay an additional fee. This requirement applies even if the student is repeating a course.

3.1 Full-time and Part-time Classifications

3.1.1 Full-time Student

A student is considered to be a full-time student if they are officially enrolled in at least 70% of the contact hours prescribed for the semester in the student’s current program. Students with documented accommodations and who are registered with the AccessAbility Centre are considered full-time students when they are registered in 40% of a full course load. A student wishing to exceed the normal course load must obtain program approval from the appropriate program coordinator and pay additional fees.

3.1.2 Part-time Student

A student who is registered in less than 70% of the contact hours prescribed for the program in the current semester will be considered to be a part-time student. Additionally, a student who registers in multiple post-secondary credit-level courses offered in the evening, weekend, or online, offered by the Continuing Education Department, may be considered full-time if they are enrolled in 70% of a full-time course load in a given semester as specified in the program of study. Enrolment Services will identify the status and notify the student as to the adjustment.

3.2 Registration Procedures

All new and returning students must complete the registration process by the deadline date set for each term. Prior to the registration deadline, an invoice for fees will be forwarded to all students who are eligible to register. It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that these are paid or that satisfactory arrangements are made for the payment of fees prior to the payment deadline.

3.2.1 Course Change (Adds)

A student must register (add) a course within the first ten (10) business days of the semester. All special cases requesting entrance at a later date must be approved by the relevant academic manager. In special circumstances, a student may be permitted to carry one or two (2) evening or online credit courses while taking a partial day program.

All course additions to a student’s timetable for a given term are to be completed by the end of the tenth (10th) day of classes from the beginning of the term as indicated in Loyalist’s academic calendar. The addition of a course after the end of this period will be considered only in exceptional circumstances and will require the approval of the relevant dean.

3.2.2 Course Change (Drops)

  • A course must be dropped within the first ten (10) business days of the semester with no record appearing on the student transcript.
  • Courses dropped after the first ten (10) business days of the semester but before the last date to withdraw as noted on Loyalist’s academic calendar will have the course recorded on their transcript with a “W” (withdrawn).
  • All courses remaining on a student’s record after the last date to withdraw as noted on Loyalist’s academic calendar will be graded and the mark will appear on the transcript.

Forms to facilitate the adding or dropping of courses are available in Enrolment Services.

3.2.3 Program Transfers – Fee Payers

When a student wishes to transfer to a different program they shall obtain written approval from the new program coordinator. The written approval will be processed by Enrolment Services. Where a student is sponsored by an external agency (e.g. Second Career, Workers’ Compensation Board, Community and Social Services, etc.) the proposed change must be supported by the sponsoring agency before the action to transfer is taken.

3.2.4 Course Prerequisites and Co-requisites and Anti-requisites

A student will not be permitted to enroll in a course for which they do not have the stated course prerequisite(s) and/or co-requisite(s) and/or established equivalent.

The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities’ Binding Policy Directive: Framework for Programs of Instruction requires all Ontario College diploma and advanced diploma programs to include discrete general education courses in their program of study. A student in a diploma or advanced diploma program at Loyalist College must attain three (3) general education credits. These credits can consist of courses taken at or through Loyalist College, transfer credits or exemption credits. General education courses have no pre- or co-requisites attached to them, but there may be elective courses in which outcomes align significantly with those offered in a required program of study. Courses are generally identified as anti-requisites when there is a very strong, documented overlap between the material studied in each course, and so there would be little educational value in registering in both courses. Anti-requisites should only be designated when the course would not be a broadening experience for the student.

3.2.5 Returning Students: Eligibility to Continue Studies

Returning students who complete the registration process are advised that such registration is conditional on their eligibility for continuation of study in the next term. A student who is required to withdraw for academic or other reasons may not attend classes and the student’s registration will be withdrawn.

3.2.6 Program Withdrawal

A registered student who has been attending classes who wishes to formally withdraw from the College must go to the Student Services Triage Desk for assistance with the process. Student Services will forward appropriate paperwork to Enrolment Services for processing.

Students who submit formal notification of withdrawal from a full-time program of instruction by the tenth (10th) business day of classes from the beginning of the term as indicated in Loyalist’s academic calendar are entitled to a refund of tuition and ancillary fees, please see section 4.1.1 for details.

Students who do not attend classes will be automatically withdrawn from their program on the tenth (10th) business day of classes.

Students who do not pay fees or make arrangements to pay fees with be automatically withdrawn from their program on the tenth (10th) business day of classes.

4.0 COURSE/PROGRAM FEES and REFUNDS

Tuition and non-tuition fees for all programs are revised each year and are available from Enrolment Services. Fees paid for courses not taken in the term for which they were originally scheduled are not transferable and may not be applied to subsequent semesters of study.

It is the student’s responsibility to monitor their account on the student information system and ensure that all fees are paid. Delinquent accounts will be put on hold; future registration and access to grades will be denied until payment is made.

4.1 Refunds

4.1.1 Full-time Students

Domestic students who officially withdraw within ten (10) business days of program start-up will receive a full refund of fees, less a $150.00 administrative fee, deferral fee(s) (if applicable) and program consumable fee (if applicable). After this time, fees are non-refundable. Students who have paid for two or more semesters and withdraw after ten (10) business days of program start-up will receive a full refund of subsequent semesters paid in advance. Students must formally inform the College that they are withdrawing and complete required forms through their Student Success Mentor.

International students who have dropped courses or withdraw from the College within ten (10) business days of the beginning of a semester should refer to the International Student Fee section on the College website.

Students who have dropped a number of courses by the stated deadline, and as a result become part-time in status, will quality for a refund. Changing from full-time to part-time status may impact a student’s eligibility for Financial Assistance/Aid (OSAP).

Students who require courses in addition to a standard course load in subsequent semesters will be required to pay additional fees in any future semester where the student registers for courses in excess of a standard course load.

4.1.2 Continuing Education/Part-time Studies

When a student drops a continuing education (CE) course, if they are eligible for a refund Enrolment Services will process the refund less the administrative fee of a $20 per course up to a maximum of $100. The request to drop the course must be made to Enrolment Services by a particular deadline in order to be eligible to receive a refund. It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that they know the dates associated with the specific course withdrawals.

In order to receive a refund, students must make the request to Enrolment Services in writing, by email, or on the phone by the specific deadline. Where payment was made by cash or cheque, refund will be issued via cheque and sent by mail.

5.0 CONTINUATION of STUDY (PROMOTION and PROGRESSION)

Students must achieve and adhere to certain course and program criteria and requirements in order to progress and be promoted in their program of study.

5.1 Promotion and Progression Requirements

Certificate, Diploma and Ontario Graduate Certificate Programs

Promotion and progression requirements are based on the principle that students must achieve a cumulative program grade point average of 60% to be eligible to graduate. Continuation of full-time study within a program is permitted provided the standards of academic performance listed below are met. The minimum passing grade is 50% in each course unless otherwise noted in course documentation.

Note: In addition to the above requirements, each academic program may have program specific requirements for passing grades, progression, probation, and withdrawal. It is the student’s responsibility to review the academic requirements for his/her specific program. Also, completion deadlines are outlined in AOP 224: Evaluation of Student Performance.

5.2 Academic Standing

A student who has been required to withdraw for academic or misconduct reasons will not be considered for readmission to a program in a related discipline for a period of two (2) consecutive semesters/terms as per AOP 224: Evaluation of Student Performance.

5.3 Readmission to Program of Study

Students whose studies have been considerably interrupted will be required to petition the academic Dean for their program if they desire to continue studies in the same program. There are two (2) categories of readmission to a program of study: readmission for interrupted students in good standing, and readmission for interrupted students required to withdraw.

5.3.1 Readmission for Interrupted Students in Good Academic Standing

Students who let their registration in courses lapse but have successfully completed previous semesters and are in good academic standing include the following:

  • Students who fail to register in consecutive terms; and,
  • Students who fail to graduate within the period of time specified in AOP 224: Evaluation of Student Performance

Students whose studies have been interrupted but who remain in good academic standing must apply in writing to return. Requests for readmission will be considered only if there is space in the program. Specific readmission requirements may exist depending on the situation and program. A student who interrupts his/her studies and applies for readmission is subject to the admission requirements, ranking priority, and curriculum requirements for the program in question at the time of application. Students may be required to repeat courses if the curriculum has changed since their previous registration in the program.

5.3.2 Readmission for Interrupted Students Required to Withdraw

Students who have been required to withdraw for academic reasons include the following:

  • Students who are suspended or withdrawn for academic failure; and,
  • Students suspended or withdrawn for academic misconduct

Students who have been required to withdraw from their program must apply in writing to return. Requests for readmission will be considered only if there is space in the program. A student who interrupts his/her studies and applies for readmission is subject to the admission requirements, ranking priority, and curriculum requirements for the program in question at the time of application. Students may be required to repeat courses if the curriculum has changed since their previous registration in the program.

6.0 GRADE REPORTS and OFFICIAL TRANSCRIPTS

6.1 Release of Grades

Enrolment Services will establish and post to the academic calendar final grade release dates that will indicate when grades will be available to students for review.

6.1.1 Midterm Grades

Students registered in post-secondary, post-graduate, and degree courses will receive a mid-term grade which, in conjunction with discussions with their faculty, is for the purpose of contributing feedback on academic performance and provide students with a realistic idea of their performance to date. Mid-term grades are not considered part of the official cumulative program grade point average (CPGPA) and will not appear on a student’s official transcript.

6.1.2 Final Grades

At the end of each term/semester, or upon completion of a program of study, all students registered in credit courses will receive a final grade reflective of their achievement of the course outcomes. Final grades are not official until released to the student by Enrolment Services. Enrolment Services will post final grades electronically through the MyLoyalist Student Portal.

6.2 Transcripts

Official transcripts provide a record of all courses attempted by a student. Enrolment Services will record the student’s final course grades on the student’s official transcript or a grade of CC to represent a course that continues to the next semester. The CC grade will be replaced with the final grade at the end of the subsequent semester. Transcripts are available for students upon request through Enrolment Services. The official transcript details a student’s permanent academic record at Loyalist and will carry the Loyalist College seal and an authorized signature. Students with outstanding fees or fines will be required to pay their fees and/or fines in full prior to the release of official transcripts of credentials.

6.3 Dean’s List

The Dean’s list recognizes outstanding academic achievement and is awarded to graduating students from credit-level programs that have no subject failures within their program and an overall weighted average of 80%.

7.0 GRADUATION and CONVOCATION

The College will issue an appropriate graduate certificate, advanced diploma, diploma or certificate to a student who has satisfactorily met all requirements of a particular program with a grade point average of 60% or higher. The credential given and named on official documents will be the ministry approved program name that the student entered into. Students with outstanding fees or fines will be required to pay their fees and/or fines in full prior to receiving their graduate certificate, advanced diploma, diploma or certificate. Students with outstanding fees or fines may participate in the convocation ceremony but will not receive their certificate or diploma until their outstanding balance is paid in full. Enrolment Services has sole authority to provide letters to students confirming completion of program requirements. Requests made to Enrolment Services by students for a letter confirming completion of program requirements will not be fulfilled if the student has outstanding fees or fines.

7.1 Ontario College Certificate, Diploma, Advanced Diploma and Graduate Certificate programs

Diplomas and certificates are issued by authority of the Board of Governors and are signed by the Chair of the Board, the President and the Registrar. There are several kinds of diplomas and certificates.

7.1.1 Ontario College Diplomas and Advanced Diplomas

  • Regular diploma programs require the successful completion of all program of study requirements, usually completed in four semesters of study, as approved by the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities.
  • An advanced diploma requires the successful completion of all program of study requirements, usually completed in six semesters of study, as approved by the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities.
  • Graduates holding these diplomas are entitled to use the designation Dip. A.A, Dip. Bus., Dip. Tech., where appropriate.
  • Various delivery models may be available for completion of requirements.
  • Holders of Practical Nursing diplomas are qualified to write the examination of the Ontario College of Nurses for registration in the province of Ontario. Success on the CPNE entitles the graduate to be registered in the province of Ontario.

7.1.2 Ontario College Certificates

  • Certificate programs require the completion of two semesters (or one year) of study, as approved by the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. Various delivery models may be available for completion of requirements.
  • In general, diplomas or certificates are awarded only to students who have satisfactorily completed all the requirements of a College program.

7.1.3 Ontario College Graduate Certificates

  • Building on knowledge and experience gained through previous post-secondary study, graduate certificates require a university degree or a college certificate or diploma for admission or equivalent. Equivalency to be assessed by program coordinator using established graduate certificate entry rubric
  • Certificate programs require the completion of two (2) semesters (or one year) of study, as approved by the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities.
  • Various delivery models may be available for completion of requirements.

7.1.4 Collaborative Degree programs

  • Students will complete two (2) years of study at Loyalist and are eligible to transfer their credits to Brock University to complete their degree. Graduates of the Loyalist-Brock Degree program are granted their B. Sc. N. from Brock University.

7.1.5 Loyalist College Certificate

  • Program developed and granted by Loyalist College to meet specific training outcomes.
  • Various delivery models may be available for completion of requirements.

7.1.6 Loyalist College Statement of Completion

  • Programs or specific courses prescribed as a package of courses that provide a level of skills, knowledge and attitudes in a specific applied occupational area.
  • Various delivery models may be available for completion of requirements.

7.2 Graduation Requirements

It is the student’s responsibility to be aware of all the graduation requirements for the program from which they expect to graduate. Unless otherwise stated by program standards, to graduate from an Ontario College Certificate, Ontario College Diploma, Ontario College Advanced Diploma or Ontario College Graduate Certificate program, students must meet all of the following requirements:

  • Students must have completed the program required timeline as per AOP 224: Evaluation of Student Performance. Failure to complete the program within the required timelines would require the student to apply for re-admission. Students would then have their courses evaluated for currency and would be subject to the program of study and graduation requirements in place at the time of readmission.
  • Students must have a 60% weighted cumulative program grade point average.
  • Students must have taken at least 25% of their program courses through Loyalist in order to satisfy residency requirements.
  • Students must not have acquired more than 75% of the program credits through the Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) process.

Students who interrupt their full-time studies will be required to meet the readmission and program requirements in effect at the time of their return to the College. Students who have interrupted their studies will not be eligible to graduate from a program that is no longer offered by the College.

Eligible students who do not attend convocation will have their diplomas or certificates mailed to them at their primary address.

7.2.1 Awarding Posthumous Credentials

A posthumous diploma or certificate (credential) may be awarded to a student provided the following:

  • Student was enrolled in the final semester of their program.
  • The student demonstrated consistent progression towards achievement of learning outcomes.
  • The student’s financial account with the College must be in good standing.
  • Exceptions to the eligibility criteria may be made at the discretion of the Senior Vice-President, Academic and Student Success in consultation with the Director of Enrolment Services.

The College does not automatically act to award a posthumous credential in the event of a student’s death. Request to award a credential posthumously may be initiated by a College faculty or staff member or by the deceased student’s family and will be coordinated by the Registrar’s Office.

  • Step 1 – Confirmation of eligibility per criteria above.
  • Step 2 – Confirmation of interest and desire on the part of the deceased student’s family to accept the credential and whether this would be done at convocation.

8.0 GRADING SYSTEMS

Grades will be reported in percentages or as a pass/fail as described in AOP 224: Evaluation of Student Performance. A pass in each course, unless otherwise stated in course documentation, is 50%. Credit will only be earned for courses with passing grades.

9.0 RELEASE of ACADEMIC RECORD

Grades are official on the day that they are released by Enrolment Services to the student. It is the responsibility of Enrolment Services to post the grades electronically and to record the grades on the student’s official transcript.

Grades for students in financial arrears will not be released until notification/authorization is received indicating that their account has been cleared to the satisfaction of Enrolment Services. To receive grades, students must have paid the outstanding balance in full.

All grades, failures, exemptions, and withdrawals shall be recorded and remain on record in the student’s file.

A student may be issued official copies of his/her Transcript of Academic Record when they make a request in writing. An Official Transcript of Academic Record (or Certificate of Achievement which lists only courses passed and no GPA) bearing the College seal and signature of the Registrar may be released directly to another educational institution, employment agency, or an employer or prospective employer, only on the written authority of the student/graduate.

Depending on year of graduation, a fee may be charged for each transcript or certificate issued. See Enrolment Services on the College website for more information.

Associated Appendices, Policies, Procedures and Form

In addition to these Post-Secondary Admissions, Registration and Graduation Policies, there are a number of academic program and institutional policies, procedures, and codes that may apply and which may be administered by the Academic School or area in which the rules originate.

Use of the following Loyalist policies, procedures, and/or codes may be required in conjunction with administration of the Post-Secondary Admission, Registration and Graduation Policy:

AOP 216 – Academic Honesty

AOP 218 – Academic Freedom – Policy & Statement

AOP 224 – Evaluation of Student Performance

AOP 221 – Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition

AOP 233 – General Education

AOP 234 – Student Involuntary Leave of Absence

Post Graduate Studies Admissions Assessment Rubric

Multiple Policies, Procedures, or Codes

In some instances more than one Loyalist policy, procedure, or code may be applicable. Where multiple internal policies, procedures, or codes apply, those responsible for initiating the processes will confer to determine which College policies, procedures, or codes should be applied first, whether multiple procedures are warranted and which takes precedent. To the extent that there is any conflict or overlap between the provisions of any applicable policies, codes or regulations, such conflict will be resolved by consultation between the parties responsible for the administration of the relevant policies, procedures, or codes.